The U.S. -led coalition strikes in Syria were created to deter President Bashar Assad's regime from launching further chemical attacks without collapsing his shaky government and drawing the United States further into a lengthy civil war.
All responsibility lies with Washington, London and Paris, Russian Ambassador to US Anatoly Antonov said, commenting on the strike.
The Russian leader warned against "ill-considered and unsafe actions ... that would have consequences beyond conjecture".
Russian officials had said before the suspected gas attack in Douma that rebels in the eastern Ghouta suburbs of Damascus were plotting chemical attacks to blame the Syrian government and set the stage for a USA strike.
By removing the threat of Russian retaliation for a missile strike on Syria, the likelihood has increased that Russian President Vladimir Putin will do what he did past year when the US punished Assad for using chemical weapons on his own people - namely, nothing, say analysts.
Separately, Russia's Defense Ministry said the majority of missiles fired during the overnight attack on Syria by US, British and French forces were intercepted by Syrian government air defense systems, TASS news agency reported.
The investigators, who are mandated to determine only if chemical weapons were used and not who used them, were expected to start their investigations into the Douma incident on Saturday, the Netherlands-based organisation said.
The members of the council had gathered to talk about the situation in the Middle East, particularly Syria, in light of the suspected chemical attack in Douma.
Ambassador Nikki Haley addressed the U.N. Security Council in emergency session ahead of a vote called by Russian Federation to attempt to block US action.
She said Friday that "the United States estimates that (President Bashar) Assad has used chemical weapons in the Syrian war at least 50 times".
Russian Federation outlined a broad range of potential retaliatory moves in response to new US sanctions, including curbs on imports of American farm products and cooperation in nuclear energy, as well as a possible ban on titanium sales to Boeing Co. Experts consider that in that case, Moscow took into account the United States and the United Kingdom.
In an early-morning tweet on Wednesday, Mr Trump warned that missiles "will be coming" in response to an alleged chemical weapons attack by Syrian government forces.
Syria and Russian Federation have denied that the attacks happened and said they were staged by the White Helmets so that the Syrian government could be blamed.
He said Russians should gather rice, oatmeal and sugar - "for those who succumb to panic and decide to spend all their savings".
He said how "we keep this from escalating out of control" and avoiding civilian casualties were among his chief concerns. "It is due to arrive in Damascus in the morning of April 14", the Russian foreign minister said.
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