She earned her PhD in 1985 from the University of California, Berkeley.
Arnold was born July 25, 1956, in Pittsburgh.
"The seminal discoveries by the two Laureates constitute a landmark in our fight against cancer", the Nobel Assembly at Sweden's Karolinska Institute said as it awarded the prize of nine million Swedish crowns ($1 million). "We need to celebrate women physicists because we're out there, and hopefully in time it'll start to move forward at a faster rate".
In announcing the award, the Royal Swedish Academy stated that the researchers had "harnessed the power of evolution".
"Evolution is the most powerful engineering method in the world, and we should make use of it to find new biological solutions to problems", she said. "But there was so much static on the line, I knew it wasn't any of my friends", he said.
"You have to think it's insane", she said. And though it's reassuring to hear that Dr. Strickland has not experienced harassment based on her gender in her career, these experiences are a definite departure from numerous contemporary conversations had around sexism in the science industry. "My CV went to the Japanese embassy and that's where he contacted me from", she explained. "She's very creative, very bright - she's wonderful".
Douglas Kell, a professor of bioanalytical science at the University of Manchester, says the prize is "fantastic news". "Yes, I am in favor of making sure we do as much as we can for our successful faculty".
Arnold's win brings the total number of women who have won the chemistry prize to five and follows the awarding of the physics prize to Donna Strickland - the first woman to win the physics prize for 55 years.
She spoke to Reuters after hearing that she had won the Nobel Prize.
Marasco said he uses it daily in his own research on developing therapies that use antibodies, which are disease-fighting proteins in the blood. Many scientists were working on engineering proteins (molecular machines) through their genetic code, but Arnold chose to try a different approach: using evolution.
In an interview with the Tribune, Smith described his work as "a way of evolution in the test tube".
In 1993, she became the first scientist to prove that you could directly guide the evolution of enzymes.
"For thousands of years we humans have used selective breeding to create animals and plants with properties that have been useful for us". In a process mimicking evolution, Winter introduced mutations to make antibodies progressively better at binding to their targets.
The award was for chemistry, but the work has wide applications throughout biology and engineering. The idea of reducing people's suffering is what pushes me forward."This current stage of research deals with improving suggested therapies and also with the issue that some patients are unresponsive to the treatment, particularly older patients", she added.
He's expected to receive $250,000 in prize money. "It is a testament to her to her vision, conviction and perseverance that she was able to ignore these criticisms". "But since I'm an engineer and not a gentleman, I had no problem with that".
Now, Arnold said, these are some of the questions she would like to answer: "How do you evolve innovation?" "Her work is incredible".
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