It was the second-such extraordinary search of land considered under worldwide law to be Saudi sovereign soil after Turkish police searched the consulate through the early morning Tuesday.
The official did not provide details on the evidence that was recovered during the hours-long search at the diplomatic mission that ended early on Tuesday.
The secretary added that he emphasized the importance of conducting a thorough, transparent, and timely investigation, and the Saudi leadership pledged to deliver precisely on that.
It added that Pompeo also discussed with Cavusoglu "the continued wrongful detention of Dr. Serkan Golge and other U.S. citizens as well as locally employed staff from U.S. Mission Turkey".
The president said Mr. Pompeo was directed to visit whatever countries were necessary to get to the bottom of it. "Saudi Arabia, I get along with all of them", Trump said. "This is a rogue Crown Prince".
Senator Lindsey Graham, a strong Trump ally in Congress, called bin Salman a "wrecking ball" and "toxic" figure.
The US and Saudi Arabia have always been allies, with both opposed to Riyadh's regional nemesis Iran since the country's 1979 revolution. "We just went through that with Justice Kavanaugh and he was innocent all the way as far as I'm concerned".
Which begs the wider question: is the West's relationship with Saudi Arabia so important that it outweighs the need to condemn and punish what many believe was a state-sponsored murder of a journalist inside a consulate?
It is still not clear.
The Saudis had earlier insisted, without evidence, that Khashoggi left the consulate freely while later reportedly hinted that rogue elements could be responsible - a theory that Trump has mused about aloud, reported AFP. And when the investigation comes out we'll evaluate it.
"They made a commitment to hold anyone connected to any wrongdoing that may be found accountable for that, whether they are a senior officer or official", Mr. Pompeo said.
Saudi officials have not responded to repeated requests for comment from The Associated Press in recent days.
"The consul's behaviour and approach drew reaction after Khashoggi disappeared", Cavusoglu said - criticising the way the consul behaved in a Reuter's tour of the consulate - "especially how he opened the cabinets saying "look he is not here" as if mocking people, behaving disrespectfully".
Four forensic vehicles arrived outside the consulate and took away soil samples as well as a metal door from the garden.
What are United States media reporting?
What allegedly happened in Istanbul?
Regan, understandably, asked Trump whether he still plans to send Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin to Saudi Arabia for an upcoming high-profile Saudi investment conference despite the "controversy surrounding missing Washington Post journalist Jamal Khashoggi".
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